The "Keeshond" case

About the replacement of the German Spitz by his foreign cousins


Short history of the Keeshond

Keeshond Wolfspitz Wolfsspitz the same breed diffenent

Oh nooo! Not another article about Wolfspitz and Keeshond! We already know everything! 


✋🏻 Stop, stop! Take a deep breath and read the article anyway, because even if you favor, for example, Giant Spitz, Miniature Spitz or Mittel Spitz, these processes concern you. Because sooner or later it will also affect your variety! The "misbreeding" of the Wolfspitz - like the developments in Pomeranian breeding - is merely a blueprint for the German Spitz as a whole.

Short history of the Keeshonds

old Keeshond Holland Netherlands Hardenbroek
Douchfour Hendrik - an oldfashioned Keeshond

To understand this, let's take a quick look at the history of the Keeshond: He was first reported in Holland in 1781. There were two political parties at that time, namely the Patriots and the Prinsgezinden (Orangists). The Patriot party had the Keeshond as its symbol, the Orangist party the Pug. There are different versions of how the name Keeshond came about. However, the name has nothing to do with cheese (Dutch: Kaas). Some claim that the name comes from the Dutch patriot Cornelis (Kees) de Gizelar. Others, however, are of the opinion that Kees means something like mob, i.e. common dog. However, it seems most likely that this word came about because children on the shore provoked the watchful dogs on the barges and ships to bark with "Kss, Kss". The monkeys in the zoo are also called Kees in Holland, because children like to tease them with the same noises. 


After the fall of Napoleon and the return of Orange as political leaders at the beginning of the 19th century, the Keeshond - the dog of the patriots - fell out of favor again and for a long time remained exclusively the dog of the common people. 

Bart Hardenbroek Keeshond Wolfspitz Netherlands
Bart, Baroness van Hardenbroek's stud dog

In Holland in the 1920s, Baroness van Hardenbroek came to the fore with her breeding. In 1925, she showed her male dog "Bart", which she had bought from a tinker, for the first time. This dog proved to be an excellent stud dog. She and the Dutch judges liked a descendant of Bart, namely "Diedrich van Walhalla", even better than her Bart. The male was small but very typical and was used heavily for breeding in Holland. His offspring all had fine, fox-like heads, but were somewhat small and slight in build.


Since the difference between the Grand Spitz and the Dutch Keeshonden was now too great, the Raad van Beheer (Dutch equivalent to the German VDH) decided in 1933 to make an attempt to establish the Dutch Keeshonden as an independent breed. A small light gray dog named "Rekel" (owner: Mrs. van der Hurk) was shown as a special example and exhibited as a standard. The breed characteristics were almost the same as for the German Wolfspitz, only the size was set at a maximum of 45 cm and the hair color was determined to be "simple gray without black hair tips".


At this time, the dogs in the ring were separated into Dutch Keeshonden and German Wolfspitzes and judged as such. However, since there were always both types in one litter (Keeshonds and Wolfspitzes), the Raad van Beheer decided after 20 years of testing to no longer recognize the Dutch Keeshond as an independent breed. He was therefore only listed as a kind of variety of a Spitz, which was further bred in Holland under the name "Keeshond". [20]

The Keeshond isn't a working dog

Wolfspitz different breed Keeshond

However, this variety increasingly distanced itself from its German brother, the Wolfspitz, as its breeders placed less and less emphasis on the working qualities of the Keeshonden. The appearance of the animals was clearly in the foregroundWhile Mrs. Tucker's dog won a prize in the category of guard, protection and domestic dogs (!) [4] at the 1956 CRUFTS, the Englishwoman Mary Smyth reported in 1969 quite astonished about her visit to a dog show to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the German Spitz Club. She was completely surprised by the sharpness of the presented Spitzes and stated that she had never seen anything like that in Holland:

"where all dogs are housedogs". [1]

The veteran of German Wolfspitz breeding, Mrs. Irene Weitz, also told us about it in 1959:

"In terms of temperament, they (the Keeshonden, author's note) are all rather benign and calm, sharpness and snappiness are not tolerated. The attitude towards the dog is different. For us, the Wolfspitz is primarily a working or guard dog. [...] Ultimately, the Wolfspitz should not alienate itself too much from its purpose of being a guard dog, working dog or housemate [...] ." [2]

Swiss breeder Mrs. Erika Pfister-Steiger wrote about the Keeshonden in 1971:

"Some are friendly towards strangers, others are even sharp. From this, you can see that the character traits vary greatly from the type in Germany. " [3]

The phenotype changes

And this development only gained momentum from then on. Over the decades, the delicate relative of our Wolfspitz has become a different breed, which has neither character nor exterior in common with the "real" Wolfspitz. This is of course denied by lovers and profiteers of the modern Keeshond type and banished to the realm of fairy tales. However, it can be consistently proven that the change from the Keeshond to the Chow type is a reality.

This is what the then 1st President of the German Spitz Club, Peter Günther, reported in 1992:

"A few days ago I got hold of old photos of Wolfspitzes. These showed relatively slender, long-legged dogs with a uniform gray color because of their less pronounced hair coat. Our Wolfspitzes used to look like this. [...] Today the Wolfspitz has a more lush coat of hair, it is dark and silver-grey, with clear markings. They appear square, the muzzle has become shorter, the forehead more pronounced [...]. There has been a noticeable change in the phenotype of our dogs. We can say that that our animals correspond to the standard externally better and safer, and we are also happy about this breeding success. Whether a positive change has occurred in terms of health and temperament remains to be seen. It is possible that the old dogs are unrivaled in this regard, and we have even suffered a loss in breeding. I would therefore like to encourage a discussion about judgement procedures and, if necessary, breeding control measures, so that we can be more certain that our dogs are selected according to criteria that are actually more important than beauty." [5] 

Keeshond american type
The Scandinavian Keeshond "Solvargens Unik" in the typical American phenotype: googly eyes, round forehead, massive build and extremely lush hair

Although (or because?) Peter Günther wanted to stimulate a sensible discussion about the judging procedures at the dog shows and possible breeding control to preserve the old Wolfspitzes, he was surprisingly voted out shortly afterward at the general meeting of the German Spitz Club in 1993.

Wolfspitz Re Jan Moravia old type
Wolfspitz "Edgar Re-Jan Moravia" on a postcard

You can also read something similar from the current judge-representative, Peter Machetanz, in 1994:

"Please believe me, I don't want to suddenly turn our healthy, efficient and useful (!) Wolfspitz into a show dog, which is what the Keeshond is (unfortunately) for the most part." [6]  Or: "Over the last few decades, the type of the Wolfspitzes outside of Germany has changed. [7]

Let's let long-time Wolfspitz breeder Irene Weitz have her say again: 

"[...] In the past, the Spitzes were higher on the legs, the bones were lighter, the hair was often very thick, but not so lush and long. Yes, it has already been said that if the appearance goes even more in this direction, it will come to the Chow type. In England, it was Mrs. Wingfield-Digby - she introduced the breed in her country - who warned against this type of breeding in the 1960s. When I often attended Wolfspitzes on dog shows about ten or twenty years ago, I noticed the difference in the nature of the foreign Keeshonden and our breed. The Keeshonden seemed calmer, more lethargic. One could almost describe it as a lack of temperament. They were all well cared for, had a square build and sturdy legs, but if you take away the excellent ring discipline, the difference was obvious. A visitor from outside the breed said, they are beautiful dogs, but our Spitz dogs are different. It was hard to define." [23] 

In 1997, the then first president Gerda Kastl reported the following about the Keeshonds exhibited at the FCI World Dog Show in Puerto Rico:

"Even in the country of the Keeshonden - the USA - there are completely contradictory opinions about the correct type of the breed. At this dog show, in addition to the modern Keeshond with a round head and big eyes, a low set body, an extremely high tail base and a beige-yellow color, I also saw a bitch that was several centimeters taller than the Keeshonden. She corresponded to the FCI standard to a high degree in terms of expression, building conditions and coat." [19]

So, in Mrs. Kastl’s eyes, did the modern Keeshonden not meet the FCI standard?

I have often criticized the point regarding the breed standard. Not only that, for a long time, Holland was viewed as the country of origin of the Wolfspitzes/Keeshonden abroad, as Carl Hinderer reported to us in 1969, who was the first to introduce Wolfspitzes to the USA and was considered as the father of the Keeshonden there. Abroad, it is often bred in a way that ignores the current breed standard. As a reminder: The FCI has recognized Germany as the country of origin of the German Spitz and therefore all countries that are affiliated to the FCI (or have contracts with the FCI, such as the USA) must breed the Wolfspitz according to German breed standards! [8]


When the introduction of an independent FCI breed called "Keeshond" was pushed by the Scandinavians in 1996 and, in the process, an "International Keeshond Association" was created by the Scandinavians, the German Spitz Club countered and created an "International Wolfsspitz Association" as a counterweight. Peter Machetanz wrote the following in the German Spitz Club's magazine “Der Deutsche Spitz”:

Max I Kammerer Wolfspitz German Spitz Keeshond old typend Wachhund
Max I, born in 1896, was a Wolfspitz straight out of a picture book: long-legged and not completely square in body, with a flat forehead, normal tail base and moderate hair

"All Spitz Clubs are hereby called upon to participate (in the "International Wolfspitz Association", author's note). Everyone who wants the Wolfspitz to remain a healthy, spirited, vivacious family dog.[10]

Counter question: Didn't Mr. Machetanz see the Keeshond as a healthy and vital breed of dog?


But people abroad also came to the same opinion at the time. In 1998, the Swedish Keeshond Club still saw a big difference between Wolfspitz and Keeshond and at that time also drew the attention of the judges who were invited to the Swedish club's judges' meeting to the differences of both types. [9]

From an imposing guard dog to a giant Pomeranian

Anyone with eyes in their head will quickly come to the conclusion that the Wolfspitz has not only lost its ability to work abroad, but also its original, impressive appearance. From an imposing guardian to a dog that - and to quote a very experienced breeder -"looks as if an air pump had been shoved into a Pomeranian's butt."

Wolfsspitz Wolfspitz Keeshond same breed differences
Wolfspitz and Keeshond the same breed? Sure. *ROFL* 😂

But they exist. Fans and profiteers of the modern Keeshond, who not only seriously claim that the Keeshond hasn't changed in the last few decades, but also tirelessly propagate that Wolfspitz and Keeshond are one and the same breed that should not be split up under any circumstances. Sure, there is almost a risk of confusion. 🙄 Again and again they emphasize - especially on social networks - that modern Keeshonden are sooooo very healthy. And sooo easy to care for. You hardly need to comb them.


Okay, seriously: Who the frick are you kidding? This is either a case of severe cognitive impairment or of simply being interested in continuing to sell their cripples. There's nothing healthy about dogs like the beige giant Pomeranian - he gets overheated under his extreme lush fur in the summer! His tongue, which is slightly curved upwards, indicates that he is having difficulty regulating his body temperature downwards.


In search of the fly in the ointment, the Keeshond fan group criticized the allegedly too low tail base of the Wolfspitz in the adjacent picture, saying it was incorrect and did not correspond to the current standard. However, the extremely high tail base that we also find in the Pomeranian is not a German invention, but rather corresponds to what is often perceived as beautiful abroad. The same applies to apple heads, extremely short backs, lowered buildings, the most lush masses of fur and thick legs. There is no trace of functionality, it's all about the "beauty". And of course about trophies and titles and championships. 

Absolutely no breeding control

German Wolfspitz extinction German Spitz
If things continue like this, such beautiful Wolfspitzes will no longer exist in the foreseeable future

The current focus of breeders, judges and buyers on the mere appearance of the Spitz is unfortunately fueled by today's dog shows. However, what is forgotten is that certain features of the dog's exterior, such as the functionality of the coat or the angulation of the hindquarters, are only a means to an end (= form follows function). They were not bred into dogs to look pretty, but because they were important in equipping the respective dog breed well for its job. A Keeshond that almost suffocates under its mass of fur simply cannot be a good guard dog. High tail attachment or not.


There's also no trace of breeding control - after all, you don't want to mess it up with anyone. A higher-level control of breeding would be urgently needed in order to preserve our ancient dog breed for the future. At this point, I quote Peter Günther again: "[...] if necessary, encourage breeding control measures so that we can be more certain that our breeding animals are selected according to criteria that are actually more important than beauty." Please think about this statement!


Instead, it has become established that breeders only have their bitches bred by those (preferably highly awarded) stud dogs that suit their own taste. Since many breeders unfortunately seem to have the same taste, they all select the same stud dogs, I'm curious to see how breeding will continue in the next, largely related generation of dogs. In any case, the other dogs' genetic material will have definitely disappeared by then.


👉🏻 How the German Spitz Club even came up with the idea to not demand breeding control for a breed of dog that is actually threatened with extinction is a mystery to me. It's the opposite: One can notice a lack of any breeding control. So every breeder can do whatever he wants. For example, it has become a habit, especially in Giant Spitz breeders' circles, to only work with dogs from breeders with whom one is personally well-disposed (for example because they share the same views). These breeders avoid certain dogs as hell because they don't like the dog owner. This is not only classic "circle j*rk*ng", but also completely idiotic and reveals the total stupidity of these "pseudo-breeders". "Breeders" who base the mating of the endangered Giant Spitz on their personal affection for the dog owner should not breed animals, but rather look for hobbies such as flower arranging or puzzles. These are probably more in line with their intellectual abilities than complex dog breeding. 🤐

Why did the Keeshond have to be included in the standard for the Wolfsspitz?

But back to the Keeshond case: The big question that arises for me as a result is why the Keeshond actually had to be integrated into the Wolfspitz standard at all costs?

"[...] that we have to change our standard in some passages,  we do not want to risk the recognition of the Keeshond breed." [18] 

Why was it necessary to prevent the establishment of a Keeshond club with its own standards? Apart from monetary interests, I have no idea why Wolfspitz and Keeshond couldn't or wouldn't simply be allowed to exist side by side.

Bartel van Zaandam Keeshond
There are also plenty of excellent Wolfspitzes from abroad, which are called Keeshonden there. My affront is directed solely at the modern show fur bombs, not at the Keeshond itself.

The Keeshonden were integrated into the German Wolfspitz standard in 1994. Because the German Spitz Club - as the club that keeps the studbook of the breed - spoke out against an own standard for the Keeshond in order to prevent the establishment of an own Keeshond association, the club was commissioned by the FCI, to somehow work the Keeshond into the breed standard for the Wolfspitzes. This was initially not well received by the club, as the club viewed the Keeshond as a pure show dog at the time, in complete contrast to the working dog Wolfspitz. 


The Keeshond was supposed to be listed in advance - on the initiative of some Scandinavian breeders and club officials - as a Dutch breed alongside the Wolfspitz at the FCI, but the Dutch Spitz Association was not informed about this at all, even though this action directly affected them. A separate standard for the Keeshond had even been developed, but the entire project was then stopped and people sat down at a table to find an acceptable solution for everyone. 


The main arguments of the FCI commission set up specifically for a common breed standard were the similarity of the two types and the close relationship of Wolfspitz and Keeshond - evidenced both by the same ancestors and by regular mating. For this purpose, the height at the withers of the Wolfspitz (previously up to a maximum of 60 cm) was lowered by 2 cm, while in terms of head shape, in addition to the fox-like head of the Wolfsspitz, the slightly more rounded head of the Keeshond was also included in the breed standard. 


Incidentally, similar processes have already happened once, when it came to integrating the Pomeranian into the German standard for the Toy Spitzes. Let's take a look together at what happened back then:

The Pomeranian becomes the German Toy Spitz

Toy Spitz German type head
A real Toy Spitz with a typical foxy Spitz head (A)

In 1974, the "old", new size breed of Toy Spitz was introduced (after this size had been abolished in 1922) in order to be able to include the Pomeranian in the standard for the German Spitz. The reason for the action was that they did not want the Pomeranians imported from England and the USA to be assigned to a different dog club (the toy dog club) at the time. Therefore, the Pomeranian was inserted into the breed standard for the German Spitz overnight. [11]


However, the standard change that was necessary to introduce the Pomeranian was made without a resolution from the German Spitz Club's general assembly, but only by the then main board at their meeting on February 3, 1974. We “acted over the heads of the general assembly”, said then president Werner Jäger. The decision was probably made under pressure from the VDH and led to the expansion of the FCI standard to include the Pomeranian. [12] 


Why were people so afraid that another dog club would take on this breed, the Pomeranian, which is completely different from the German Toy Spitz?


People weren't really enthusiastic about what came from abroad. The untypical, high tail position and the frequent apple heads of the imported animals were criticized, and shortened snouts and jaws were also a problem. Some imported animals were unable to breed at 1.5 years old, and many bitches were only able to give birth by Cesarean section.


In 1975, judge-representative Wörner criticized these Pomeranians as follows:

"Toy is not the same as gnome. Pomeranians must also meet the binding FCI standard and be completely Spitz. Animals with inadequate temperaments are not the goal of Toy Spitz breeding. "

Toy Spitz Pomeranian difference not the same breed German
A Pomeranian, as is favored abroad, with a strongly rounded head, extra-short back, high tail base and thick legs (B)

At that time, the German Spitz Club also had a strong suspicion that Chihuahuas or Pekingese dogs had been secretly crossed into the Pomeranian abroad in order to achieve the desired, doll-like appearance of the dogs. Therefore, mating of Toy Spitzes of German lineage with the imported Pomeranians was initially prohibited. [14]


15 years later, the club was again sobered to discover that the Pomeranians in their homeland were not only not bred according to colors, but that - in addition to a different head shape - they also have a different temperament than the Pomeranians from German lines. As a consequence of these experiences, an application was made in 1987 to recognize the Pomeranian breed as an independent Spitz breed and essentially separate it from the German Spitzes. [13]  In practice, this meant that, according to the wishes of the Spitz Club's main board, the Pomeranian should be considered a separate, foreign breed, similar to the Japanese Spitz or the Volpino Italiano. However, the commission, set up specifically for this purpose, came to no conclusion.


Think about this: They noticed that the imported animals differed very much in appearance and nature from our German Spitz, and they even suspected that many of them are not purebred at all - and they did just....nothing (except for a miserable attempt)!

The replacement of the Wolfspitz

Keeshond Wolfsspitz Wolfspitz difference
On the left a typical alert Wolfspitz, on the right a modern Keeshond

Over time, the Pomeranian has completely replaced the true Toy Spitz; in fact, the Pomeranian is now more or less extinct. And exactly the same thing is currently happening with the Wolfspitz. Because if different types of a dog breed have to compete with each other in dog shows, sooner or later this will always be to the disadvantage of one type. The Grand Dame of German Wolfspitz breeding, Mrs. Irene Weitz, warned against showing Keeshonds and Wolfsspitzes together in the same ring. Which type does the judge choose? And does he decide based on standard or personal taste? Sometimes the judges from abroad don't know what a real Wolfspitz actually looks like, as the international exhibitions are consistently dominated by the Keeshonden.


Mrs. Weitz once compared both types in "The German Spitz" number 125 on page 8. First, the Wolfspitz, as it has always been bred, with a not so lush, harsh coat, which appears temperamental in nature (this is also called "alert"). [21]  On the right you can see the modern Keeshond: of the type that is often bred in England and the USA, i.e. massive, extremely lush in hair, a dog that makes an impression. [22] An eye-catcher in the ring. Just a pure show dog, without any working dog characteristics - and obviously rather clumsy. [15]

dog show judge
This is how proper judging works! Click for translation!

I would be interested to know why this type of change actually has to happen? Why can't the German Spitz stay as he was? By the way, I am not alone with this attitude, but share it with many breeders and lovers of the real German Spitz.


❗ You can't change a dog breed for the sake of a fashion mood! It easily takes 18 months for a bitch to be ready for breeding and to be mated. Another 18 months pass before we see what kind of offspring the bitch produces. It can't be acceptable, that show judgments ruin everything because the judge's taste has suddenly changed! But that's a topic in itself anyway, because the judging itself definitely needs to become more uniform - and shouldn't be based on the judge's mood - or the breeding goals of the judge's own kennel. You can clearly see what neat, clean judging looks like in the pictures below. Although the judge Schmidt has a clear favorite, he ultimately gives him the objective evaluation that the dog actually deserves in order to avoid being accused of not knowing the breed standard. 

Quo vadis, German Spitz?

The Wolfspitz is an ancient guardian of the German homelandHe needs a lot of freedom and is very close to nature, and his name alone shows how old the “breed” actually is. [17] However, the Wolfspitz is in no way to be equated with a modern, breeding variety of its breed, namely the Keeshond. Only and exclusively the German Wolfsspitz in its original form is worth protecting - as an old German cultural asset!


By the way, this applies to all varieties of real German Spitz. There is no “old style” or "old type", there is only true German Spitz And everything else that, at best, passes for "spitz-like" - also jokingly referred to as "Spotz".


When breeders make claims such as that the modern Keeshond is merely a different "interpretation" of the current breed standard (I didn't know you had to interpret a breed standard), such as the show and performance line of the Labrador, then both "interpretations" have to consequently separated again. 


Personally, I don't like modern Keeshonden, but anyone who thinks they're beautiful should breed them/ own them. I have nothing against the Kees, but I do object to the fact that our Wolfspitz is being replaced by him. And since it is now not possible to quickly separate the two types of breeding because both types are currently closely intertwined, my humble suggestion would be that you simply ignore the pedigree of the respective dog and only consider it based on its actual condition and its qualities as a guard dog and then classify it as either Keeshond or Wolfspitz. 

The “modernization” affects all Spitz varieties

Wolfspitz Keeshond Alex d'Este
Wolfspitz Alex d'Este

Nobody needs to fool themselves: the current dog shows - which have degenerated from a meaningful breeding show into a pure beauty competition - are massively pushing this "fashionable change". Ultimately, this "modernization" will affect all Spitz varieties, because the process is always identical: First, the respective variety is gutted from the inside, i.e. the softening of the characteristics - the variety becomes just a lapdog, just a toy - then it begins the transformation of the type into total trivialization. And if you're honest, all real German Spitzes are now endangered and belong on the GEH Red List alongside the Giant Spitz and the Mittel Spitz. If you don't believe me, start to count the Wolfspitzes of pure German lineage just for fun. There probably won't be many. Or the remaining Toy Spitzes.....🙄😫


So how long do we want to watch our German Spitzes being f*cked up and miss-bred? In Germany (and not only there) there are breeders who use obvious Samoyed hybrids as Giant Spitz stud dogs without any shame. Some of those "Spotzes" are so high in withers that even my really large Wolfspitz looks small next to them. And apparently no one wants to notice? This is disgusting! 


However, the buyer is still the tipping point. Even if some breeders think that trivializing our ancient guard dog has a sales-promoting effect, they are wrong in the long term. Because the breeders who still breed true German Spitzes have no problems selling their offspring. And often without any advertising. Unfortunately, we only have too few of them. 

In conclusion

In 1998, the then general studward of German Spitz Club Lothar Mende wrote:

"The German Spitz has been bred in an organized manner for 100 years. We all know and are proud of the fact that he has so far been spared from trends and is still vital and healthy. Reaching old age is not uncommon for our Spitz. It should stay that way. That's why many dog lovers have also chosen the Spitz and not another dog breed. Let's not constantly try to create something new. Let's remember the purpose of founding the club. Let's preserve the Spitz as it has been bred for 100 years. This is, I think, we owe it to the founders of our club." [16]

I think you can leave it like that without comment.


[1] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 54, p. 14, 1969

[2] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 24, p. 31, 1959

[3] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 58, p. 20, 1971

[4] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 14, p. 13, 1956

[5] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 136, p. 3, 1992

[6] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 145, p. 3

[7] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 146, p. 7, 1994

[8] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 54, p. 13 f. 

[9] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 162, p. 3

[10] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 153, p. 3

[11] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 159, p. 45

[12] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 67, p. 6, 1974

[13] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 115, p. 44

[14] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 70, p. 16 f.

[15] "Der Deutsche Spitz" Nr. 125, S. 8, f.

[16] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 160, p. 3

[17] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 28, p. 31

[18] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 155, p. 3

[19] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 157, p. 16

[20]  Breeder and judge Stenfert Kroese-Croll in "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 7, p. 29 ff., 1954

[21] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 124, p. 7

[22] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 124, p. 9

[23] "Der Deutsche Spitz" no. 90, p. 10, 1980


👉🏻 The German Spitz Club is certainly willing to provide the relevant pointed magazines from its archive upon request. 


Photo credits:




Kommentare: 0